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Glossary

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N
O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

A

Accessories

Items, such as earrings, or handbags, which are used to enhance a wardrobe.

Advance

Money provided to a model prior to the completion of a contract. Often agencies will advance airfare or accommodations to a model as an incentive for that model to work with that agency.

Advertising Agency

A company, which oversees the direction of an ad campaign. Normally they are responsible for the hiring of photographers, producers, art directors, etc.

Agency

A company, which promotes models in exchange for a commission on the model's earnings. Agencies usually develop their models by recommending quality photographers and helping to educate the model about the business.

Agency Fee

The fee an agency charges a client. This is different from the "Model's Fee" which is the amount deducted from the model. An agency fee is usually added to the total billing of a job.

Agent

A person who helps arrange contracts and establishes contacts to aide in the promotion of models he/she represents. It should be noted that the agent works for the model and not the other way around.

Art Director

One who works on the set of a photo shoot to develop the overall image of the finished product.

Assignment

A job for which a model is hired. Also called a booking.



B

Beauty Shot

Generally a headshot, or close-up of a model, showing her/his true features. The makeup is very natural and light. The wardrobe is plain, and the background is simple and non-distractive.

Billing Form

Models use this to record the details of a particular job. Details include time started and finished, the client's name, and associated costs.

Blocking

The portion of a fashion show rehearsal where runs are choreographed. It involves deciding where models will be placed on the ramp for aesthetic and lighting purposes.

Blow-up

(noun)

An enlargement of a photograph to be used in a model's portfolio.

Body Girl

A model that is promoted more for bookings that involve a stellar figure.

Book

(verb)

To arrange for a model to do a particular job.

Book

(noun)

A model's portfolio.

Booker

An agency employee who negotiates rates and other details for models' bookings.

Booking

An assignment or job related to modelling.

Booking Conditions

The provisions of a booking, which specify the terms under which the model will work. If a model is required in the booking conditions to work overtime or to wear lingerie, it often means the model will be paid more.

Booking-out

(verb)

A model giving notice to her agency of times she is unavailable to work is said to be "booking-out" for that period.

Buyer

An employee of a store or boutique that is charged with purchasing clothing from designers. These clothes are then re-sold in their shops.

Buy-out

A lump-sum payment given by a client to a model/agency instead of residuals on an ongoing campaign.

C



Callback

A second, or occasionally, third time a model meets with prospective clients. Usually callbacks are a strong indication a model is getting serious consideration.

Casting

An interview/audition whereby models are viewed and considered for an upcoming assignment.

Casting Director

An individual charged with overseeing the selection process of a casting.

Catalog/Catalogue

A category of print modelling, which involves models displaying products with the goal of making the products desirable to consumers.

Cattle Call

A large scale casting where models are quickly reviewed and very little interaction occurs between those doing the casting and most of those being seen.

Catwalk

Another term for the runway used in fashion shows.

Character Model

Character Models can be found in all kinds of campaigns. Generally they either play they role of a well-known personality (such as Santa), or exude such personality that you can't help but notice them. Being attractive is not a requirement for being a character model. Being memorable is.

Change Sheet

A large cloth put on the floor of a change room during a fashion show to protect clothes. It is also called a drop cloth because often during quick changes, clothes are dropped quickly so a new outfit can be put on.

Checker

The person backstage at a fashion show who checks the outfit and model prior to them entering the runway to make sure all the details have been attended to.

Check-In

The time each day (or possibly twice a day) when a model is expected to contact their agency. The agency then gives the model his/her daily agenda of castings, go-sees, etc.

Chromes

Seldom used in the age of digital photography, "chromes" is another name for "slides" (the product of slide film).

Client

The person, group or company that hires models.

Closed Set

An area open only to those involved in the production of the image. Those usually allowed on set are the model, photographer, the photographer's assistants, the art director and necessary stylists. Closed sets are primarily used for shoots requiring privacy.

Collection

A designer's series of garments designed for a specific fashion season.

Commentary

The spoken part of a fashion show as it relates to the clothing, designers and other relevant connections to the show's theme.

Commentary is generally reserved for mall shows, charity shows or trunk shows.

Commercial

A division of modelling generally reserved for less of a high-fashion feel. It is usually more casual and relative to everyday living.

Commercial Print

The photographic use of a model's image to promote a product or service.

Commission

The portion of a model's earnings retained by their agent/agency.

Comp

A card or sheet featuring one model's pictures. Usually a comp will show the model's most marketable looks. Also called a composite, comp card, zed card or sed card.

Comp Card

A card featuring one model's pictures. Usually a comp card will show the model's most marketable looks. Also called composite, comp, zed card or sed card.

Composite

A card or sheet featuring one model's pictures. Usually a composite will show the model's most marketable looks. Also called a comp, comp card, zed card or sed card.

Confirm/Confirmation

When a client and a booker agree on terms, this is a confirmation. All the details are taken care of and the model is assigned to that particular job..

Conflict

This term refers to advertising campaigns that are similar in product or message. Usually clients will not want a model that has done a recent campaign for their competition. It is the client's responsibility to inform an agency of the product and campaign. It is then the agencies responsibility to ensure there are no conflicts.

Contact

Another in a similar or related industry that may be a valuable resource.

Contact Sheet

A photo paper sheet that displays the images from a roll of film. It gives those selecting pictures a chance to preview the images before deciding which prints to blow-up. Also called proof sheets.

Increasing, digital versions of contact sheets are being used for sharing large numbers of images ahead of the selection process.

Contract

A signed agreement stating the conditions under which an arrangement will occur.

Creatives

Unpaid photoshoots where - in theory - the model, photographer, stylist, and other artists on set have an equal contribution to the final image.

Although the model does not pay for the shoot, she/he generally does pay for any prints they choose for their portfolio.

D

Day Rate

A price agreed to prior to a booking that encourages clients to hire a model for a specified period (usually eight hours), at a price lower than the hourly rate.

Digitals

Digital snapshots taken of a model, usually with no makeup, and wearing a swimsuit or something flattering to the figure. These images are shared with clients or agencies in other markets, to show how the model looks in a more informal setting and (should) involve little to no retouching.

Direct Booking

An arrangement in which the model is brought into a market for one booking.

Dress Rehearsal

(noun)

A run-through of a fashion show before the actual event.

Dress rehearsals give models a chance to get accustomed to the clothes, shoes, choreography, tempo and other variables that can affect the presentation.

Dressers

Backstage assistants at a fashion show who ensure the proper care of clothing and assist the model with changes between runs.

Dressing Room

(noun)

The backstage area of a fashion show where models prepare prior to the event, and get changed between sets.

Drop Cloth

A large cloth put on the floor of a change room during a fashion show to protect clothes. It is also called a drop cloth because often during quick changes, clothes are dropped quickly so a new outfit can be put on. Also known as a change sheet.

E

E-card/E-comp

A composite card designed specifically for marketing a model on the internet.

Editorial

A category of modelling or photography referring to projecting mood, opinion or storyline into pictures. The term editorial is very vague in definition.

Exclusive

An arrangement between a client and a model that specifies the model works only for that client, unless that client allows the model to work on other projects.

Expense Form

A sheet retained by models to keep track of relevant modelling expenses for tax purposes.

Extras

On-camera bystanders in a motion picture, commercial, or other visual media. Models often are hired in these roles to create a certain image for a scene/scenes.

F

Fashion Model

A model primarily used in the displaying of clothing and/or accessories.

Fashion District

An area of a city where fabric shops, designers, clothing boutiques and often modelling agencies are located.

Fashion Photographer

A photographer who is defined by his/her collection of work for models, magazines, catalogues or other fashion images.

Fashion Show

A staged show featuring models displaying clothing for the purpose of showcasing certain fashions.

Fashion Week

The week when the collections are shown in fashion markets. Larger markets often have fashion weeks in different seasons. The fall collections may be shown in the spring fashion weeks.

Fee

The amount agreed to be paid to a model for bookings.

Figure Model

A model hired because of a stellar or unique body. Figure models are primarily used to display swimwear, lingerie, active wear or other tight-fitting or revealing clothing.

Fit Model

A model around whom clothes are designed and/or constructed.

Fitness Model

A model with a well-toned, muscular body. These models are featured in such magazines as Muscle and Fitness, and Men's Health.

Fitting

A time prior to a booking when a model tries on fashions to ensure a proper fit.

Flat Rate

A fee established prior to a booking, irrespective of time and conditions.

Freelance

To seek out work without agency representation.

Full-length

A photo showing the model from head-to-toe.

G

Glossy

An 8x10 black and white photograph, generally of the model's face only. It is used for marketing the model in acting roles.

Go-see

An meeting with those clients that regularily or occassionally cast (hire) models. As opposed to a casting, where a model meets a client for a specific job, this is more of an informal introduction with the intention of making a good impression on a client so that they might request the model for future work.

Guarantee

A minimum dollar amount an agency will assure a model will earn for modelling under that agency's representation. Guarantees are most common in places like Japan, Korea and Taiwan.

H

Hand Model

A model with exceptional hands, used for advertising such things as rings, cell phones or dish soap.

Haute Couture

High Fashion (French).

Headsheet

A poster containing individual pictures of the models represented by a particular agency. Agencies send out their headsheet to clients and other agencies as a marketing tool.

Head Shot

A tight shot of the model's head & shoulders.

High Fashion

Upcoming trends and styles.

Hold

A request made by a client to an agency to reserve a model for an upcoming booking. If a model is held for a campaign, the agency will not commit the model to a conflicting campaign. If the booking does not work out, the model is then "released" from the hold.

Hostessing

A style of interactive modelling which requires the live model to draw attention to a particular product or display.

House Model

A model that works within a designer's studio to display fashions to prospective customers.

I

Image

An impression usually of a visual nature, by which something is defined.

Image Girl

A model that is promoted more for campaign-style bookings.

Informal Modelling

A term that encompasses all the types of interactive, live modelling, such as hostessing, tearoom shows, or trunk shows.

L

Layout

The way in which photos, text, logos and other visual matter is presented on a printed sheet (magazines, catalogs, comp cards, headsheets, etc).

Leg Model

A model with exceptional legs used for advertising such things as nylons, footwear or shavers.

Line

A designer's particular collection for a certain fashion season.

Loading

An additional amount paid to a model following the completion of a booking. The loading is paid for the use of the model's image beyond the scope of the original campaign.

Location

In photography, meaning anywhere other than a studio.

Look Book

A designer's promotional booklet to show off a season's collection to buyers.

Loupe

A magnifying tool used to enlarge images on a contact sheet.

M

Major markets

Cities and regions where the majority of modelling work is done.

Mannequin

A common term in France for a fashion model.

Mannequin Modelling

Standing nearly still while displaying selected fashions as to give the impression of a store mannequin.

Market (noun)

Regions where a certain amount of work is done.

Market (verb)

To attempt to generate interest in.

Minibook/Mini-portfolio

A smaller version of the model's portfolio which agencies send off to prospective clients in advance of a model's travels.

Model

One whose image is seen as desirable and/or unique, and is contracted to draw attention to themselves and that which they are displaying.

Modelling Agency

An business that exists to promote models in exchange for a fee or commission.

Model's Release

A form that is signed following the completion of a booking or photoshoot. The model signs this to allow the client the use of his/her image.

Model's tote

A bag usually carried by models to their bookings containing tools required to complete the assignment. Items included may be Static Guard, a sewing kit, a makeup kit, extra shoes, and various kinds of undergarments.

Mother Agency

A Model designates one agency to be their "Mother Agency." The mother agency helps develop the model and is charged with negotiating contracts with agencies in other markets on the model's behalf.

N

New Face

A model just starting in the industry, or new to an agency.

Nude Model

A model that poses without clothes.

O

On location

Away from a photographer's or client's studio.

On set

At a photographer's or client's studio.

On stay

An extended period where a model stays in a market that is not their home, making themselves available to a variety of clients.

Open Call

The time an agency sets aside to meet with prospective models without scheduled appointments.

Option

A client's request to "hold" a model for an upcoming campaign. A client may have first, second, third or lower options on models, depending on their campaign and which other clients have made earlier requests for the model.

Overtime

The time a model spends on the set beyond the negotiated period. Overtime normally requires a higher rate of pay.

P

Parts Model

A model that possesses something exceptional, such as hands, legs or teeth, which can be used for specialized types of advertising.

Petite Model

Generally regarded as models under 5'7" (170 cm), and possessing a small frame.

Photo Movement

The process of moving from pose-to-pose in front of a camera.

Photo Session/Shoot

A scheduled time for the taking of photographs.

Plus-size Model

Generally regarded as models that wear a dress size of 10 or more, possessing a larger frame.

Portfolio

A book, containing a model's best work from photo shoots or tearsheets. The portfolio is used to show to prospective clients, to showcase a model's diversity and experience.

Potential

A term used in conjunction with evaluating a model's ability to succeed.

Press Show

A fashion show put on by a designer to introduce media to their new line or collection.

Print

A photograph. The standard size to fit a model's portfolio is 9" x 12".

Print Modelling

Any type of modelling related to the publishing of still photographs

Prêt-à-porter

Ready to wear. (French)

Proof Sheets

Another term for contact sheets.

Props

Items used in conjunction with a set to enhance to overall image of the picture.

R

Ramp

Another name for the runway used in fashion shows.

Rate

The amount decided between a model/agency and a client for the time a model spends. Rates may be based on any number of factors and conditions.

Release (noun)

A form that is signed following the completion of a booking or photoshoot. The model signs this to allow the client the use of his/her image.

Release (verb)

To free a model's schedule from a prior commitment. An agency will put a model on hold for a prospective campaign/show, but will release the model if booking does not go ahead.

Reshoot

An additional photo shoot required because of unsatisfactory results the previous time.

Residuals

Additional money received by a model following the completion of an assignment. This money is paid based on how long the campaign runs, how often and where.

Resume

A sheet prepared to outline the model's experience, qualifications, training and skills.

Run (noun)

Each occassion during a fashion show that a model steps onto the runway.

Runway

The area of the fashion show where models display the fashions. Generally the runway is an elevated stage. Also called a catwalk.

Runway Modelling

Refers to the division of modelling involving the production and execution of fashion shows.

Run Through

A fashion show rehearsal

Roster

An agency's list of models they represent.

S

Sample Size

The size in which a designer constructs his or her original garment, usually to fit a model rather that the normal, buying public.

Scuba Book

A type of model's portfolio.

Scout

One who is hired or contracted by an agency to seek out new faces. Often larger agencies will have former models living abroad do their scouting.

Season

A period of time for which particular designers plan their collections. The most common fashion seasons are fall and spring.

Sed Card

Another term for composite or comp card.

Semi-nude

Topless, or even completely naked, but without revealing too much to the camera. The model may be posed in such a way that not everything is revealed. Often seen in ads for body washes, leg waxes, bronzers, etc.

Sheer

See-through. A sheer garment still leaves visable that which it is covering.

Showroom

A room maintained by a design house to showcase their fashions.

Showroom Model

A model employed by a designer to stay in the showroom and display fashions to potential buyers/consumers.

Slides

A type of 35mm film housed in cardboard or plastic for standard sizing and durability.

Snapshots

A set of casual shots, usually requested by an agency to evaluate a model's face and body-type. Often, certain poses are requested.

Specs/Speculatives

An assignment undertaken by a model and photographer, with the intention of selling the final product to a client. There is no guarantee of payment for either party. It is all speculation.

Specialty Model

Like a parts model -- has a certain niche that makes the model more marketable in certain areas.

Spokesmodel

Usually an attractive and well-spoken individual contracted to work in public, telling about a particular product or service.

Spread

An ongoing (two-or more pages) feature in a magazine that follows a particular theme.

Starter

The person backstage at a fashion show who tells models when to enter the runway area, and thereby controls the flow and timing of the event.

Statistics / Stats

The physical variables of a model. Generally a female's comp card will contain stats such as bust, waist and hip measurements, height, dress size, shoe size, hair color and eye color. A male will have height, jacket size, waist, inseam, shoe size, hair and eye color.

Stock Photography

Often, a photographer will hire a model to do stock shots. This means photographing the model with no particular project in mind.

Instead, the photos are put into a stock photography catalogue and clients, at any time, can purchase the photographs for whatever project they are dreaming up at that time. Stock photos are often used in corporate reports, political brochures, or on web sites that want to target a certain demographic, but donít have the budget to shoot their own campaign.

Models are generally paid poorly for such assignments, but may do well if they can negotiate a fee for each occasion the photos are used. Itís not unlikely a good set of stock photos will be picked up for a variety of projects in different areas.

Stylist

The person on set who tends to the model's wardrobe.

Swimsuit Model

A model with an attractive figure to model swimsuits. Height is not as important for swimsuit modelling as it is for fashion modelling.

T

Talent

The performing side of modelling, as in acting, singing or dancing.

Tears

Pages from magazines or other printed matter featuring the model's image in circulation (as opposed to prints from photographers). Tears are used as proof that a model has experience and the ability to work well. Also called tearsheets.

Tearsheets

Pages from magazines or other printed matter featuring the model's image in circulation (as opposed to prints from photographers). Tearsheets are used as proof that a model has experience and the ability to work well. Also called tears.

Tests/Testshoots/Testing

Photoshoots that the model does to increase the amount of shots in his/her portfolio. Tests are normally done to give the model a different look than what can already be found in his/her book, thereby showcasing the model's diversity.

Three-quarter length

A photograph consisting of the model's head, torso, and any area below the waist, but above the ankles

Time-for-Prints (TFP)

An arrangement where a photographer agrees to give a certain amount of prints to a model in exchange for her time spent posing.

Tote

A bag usually carried by models to their bookings containing tools required to complete the assignment. Items included may be Static Guard, a sewing kit, a makeup kit, extra shoes, and various kinds of undergarments.

Trade Show

A show geared towards a certain segment of the population, containing booths and displays. Models are often hired as hostesses and spokesmodels as a way of attracting attention to one of competing displays.

Trunk Show

A collection from a single designer, which generally travels to selected stores that retail that designer's clothes. Small-scale fashion shows are then presented right in the store, before the collection moves on.

U

Usage fees

Similar to residuals, in that models are paid extra depending on the amount of times their image is used in conjunction with an ad campaign.

V

Voucher

A form signed in triplicate at the completion of a booking. The voucher verifies the times and conditions of the completed booking. One copy is kept by the client, one by the model, and one by the agency. These forms are then used for billing purposes.

W

Wardrobe

A model's collection of clothing.

Weather Permit

Conditions related to the weather that may affect a booking and payment for late cancellations.

Z

Zed card

Another name for comp card or sed card


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